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Chlorine Disinfection By-Products

January 2014: Friends of the Earth Australia Chlorine Disinfection Report Westernport Water Case Study January 2014

July 29 2013: Friends of the Earth Australia Chlorine Disinfection Report Grampians Wimmera Mallee Case Study July 29 2013

March 2013: Specific Drinking Water Issues South West Victoria 2006-2012 Aluminium, Arsenic & Bromodichloromethane March 2013

October 15 2012: Adelaide Residents Drinking Possibly Carcinogenic Compound At Unsafe Levels (Bromodichloromethane)

October 13 2012: Cancer Alert Over South Australia's Tap Water

October 2012: SA Water Drinking Water Quality 2000-2012

Please note that the following figures are supplied from Annual Drinking Water Quality Reports, provided by Water Authorities under the Safe Drinking Water Act. These reports only highest levels detected and do not publish all results above Guideline levels. For these figures please go to links above. These reports do not include breakdown results for 4 Trihalomethanes.

Victorian Water Supply Figures 2011/12 above Australian Drinking Water Quality Standard

Victorian Water Supply Figures 2010/11 above Australian Drinking Water Quality Standard

Victorian Water Supply Figures 2009/10 above Australian Drinking Water Quality Standard

Victorian Water Supply Figures 2008/9 above Australian Drinking Water Quality Standard

Victorian Water Supply Figures 2007/8 above Australian Drinking Water Quality Standard

 

According to the US EPA (http://www.epa.gov/ogwdw000/hfacts.html)

Disinfection byproducts form when disinfectants added to drinking water to kill germs react with naturally-occuring organic matter in water.

Total Trihalomethanes. Some people who drink water containing trihalomethanes in excess of EPA's standard over many years may experience problems with their liver, kidneys, or central nervous systems, and may have an increased risk of getting cancer.

Haloacetic Acids. Some people who drink water containing haloacetic acids in excess of EPA's standard over many years may have an increased risk of getting cancer.

Australian Guidelines are much higher than those accepted in the US and Europe: (THM Australia still 250ug/L, Whereas Europe 100ug/L & in USA its 80 ug/L)

CHLORINE ACQUIRES ROGUE STATUS Byline: Peter Fisher

In America, where the chlorine content has traditionally been high, there is a growing concern that byproducts formed during the chemical disinfection of drinking water could pose serious health risks. Last year, the possibility that these disinfection byproducts or DBPs might even cause miscarriages and birth defects received plenty of attention at an American Water Works Association annual meeting.

The purpose of chlorinating the water is to introduce residual hypochlorous acid and the hypochlorite ion. This residual is to prevent the regrowth of coliforms once the water is in the distribution system; avert the occurrence of opportunistic pathogens, so called by water engineers; as well as inhibiting the formation of organic crud in the pipes where such nasties can thrive. Recent American research has shown that organic matter can be as much as 12 per cent of pipe cross sections and suggests that the residual is ineffective against any bacteria lurking there. Regardless, there's a danger that the residual induces a false sense of health security. And countries such as the Netherlands have been able to deliver high-quality water without residuals focusing on best practice treatment systems, distribution and monitoring.

Unfortunately, chemical disinfection produces hundreds of DBPs when the chemical (usually chlorine, chlorine dioxide or chloramine) reacts with natural organic matter in the water. A number of epidemiological studies point to an association between DBPs in the water supply and various reproductive disorders, including miscarriage, impaired fetal growth and some birth defects. For instance, a study of 5,000 Californian women indicated an increased risk of first trimester miscarriage among those who drank more than five glasses of tap water a day in which the total tri-halomethanes (TTHMs), a regulatory indicator of DBP levels, exceeded 70 micrograms per litre. Whereas a USEPA panel found that ``evidence that DBPs cause adverse pregnancy outcomes does not yet exist'', it recommended continued epideminological research by the EPA.

The assumption had been that there was only a health risk if there had been long exposure to elevated levels. But as TTHMs, and DBPs in particular, can vary markedly according to temperature, residual chlorine concentration and location within the distribution system, consumers can be exposed to levels higher than official levels recorded at isolated points in the network. One American city alone recorded, on the same summer's day, a huge range in total trihalomethane levels from 10 to 150 micrograms per litre. So there's much uncertainty as to the level of DBPs to which people are being exposed. A further complication is that only half of the hundreds of DBPs in drinking water have thus far been characterised so their toxicological properties are unclear. Then there's the perennial problem that each chemical is supposed to be acting singly rather than in combination. To date, the effects identified in toxicological studies on single compounds are only being found at orders of magnitude higher than environmental levels.

The fluctuations in DBP levels, which put at risk the immune-compromised, children and the unborn, may persuade water agencies to change their disinfection processes. However, some water engineers still think it would be better if everyone drank bottled water.

UV irradiation systems, which damage the DNA of microbes thus preventing them from multiplying, are well established in Europe where there are about 2,000 installations. They are now finding favour in America where there are around 200. In Australia, the North East Region Water Authority's just-commissioned water treatment plant at Myrtleford, Victoria, represents the first significant installation of a UV-based system, supported by activated oxygen and carbon filtration.

Ozone treatment is also being considered in response to chlorine-based DBPs, although there can be some bromide-based DBPs. An Australian development, MIEX-DOC, developed by a consortium involving the CSIRO, removes natural organic matter and thus offers a means to reduce the level of DBPs formed when the water is chemically disinfected. Another trigger for switching out of chlorination is a new US federal rule requiring utilities to provide consumers with regular reports on the quality of their drinking water.

And there are indications that DBPs may enter the body through the skin while washing and bathing in chlorinated pools.

A senior scientist at the Co-operative Research Centre for Water Quality and Treatment recently identified the best utilities as those that have closed catchments ; distribution systems with good pressure; minimal bio-encrustations; no or few interconnections; careful line repair protocols; good separation from sewerage lines; regular flushing; continuous system monitoring; and a hydraulically modelled network. With this multiple barrier approach, the chances of viral, bacterial and protozoan contamination are largely eliminated, obviating the need for a residual in the supply system. Plugged into this armoury should be advanced treatment systems of the activated carbon/pulsed UV/ozone type.

A thorough multiple-barrier approach is going to cost Dutch prices are $3.00 a kilolitre compared with about 60 to 80 cents per litre locally but wouldn't you like the peace of mind? In the meantime, consumer concern might prompt the sale and further development of small disinfection and filtration unit as an alternative to residuals.

Meanwhile, chlorine is well on its way to acquiring rogue status. It's a highly toxic, reactive chemical, readily soluble and it strongly oxidises. Coupled with the emerging controversy over DBPs, the chlorination of water supplies and swimming pools faces a bleak future. And yet, linked with improved sanitation, it can take credit for the elimination of typhoid and cholera in the West.

(Published Australian Financial Review 9/7/99)

Victorian Water Supplies

2011/12 Refers To Highest Single Samples Only Westernport Water)

Trihalomethanes (12: 2011/12, 26: 2010/11, 16: 2009/10, 41: 2008/9, 45: 2007/8)

Trihalomethanes

Manangatang 0.380mg/L GWMWater

Quambatook 0.360mg/L GWMWater

Boort 0.320mg/L Coliban Water

Lalbert 0.310mg/L GWMWater

Ultima 0.310mg/L GWMWater

Ouyen 0.300mg/L GWMWater

Wycheproof 0.300mg/L GWMWater

Haven 0.280mg/L GWMWater

Natimuk 0.280mg/L GWMWater

Nagambie 0.270mg/L Goulburn Valley Water

Minyip 0.260mg/L GWMWater

Nullawil 0.260mg/L GWMWater

Dichloroacetic Acid

Dichloroacetic acid (6: 2011/12, 8: 2010/11, 4: 2009/10, 3: 2008/9, 3: 2007/8)

Cavendish 0.120mg/L Wannon Water

Manangatang 0.120mg/L GWMWater

Nagambie 0.120mg/L Goulburn Valley Water

Gunbower 0.110mg/L Coliban Water

Lalbert 0.100mg/L GWMWater

Ouyen 0.100mg/L GWMWater

Trichloroacetic Acid

Trichloroacetic Acid (15: 2011/12, 19: 2010/11, 16: 2009/10, 9: 2008/9, 7: 2007/8)

Manangatang 0.290mg/L GWMWater

Jung 0.240mg/L GWMWater

Beulah 0.220mg/L GWMWater

Ouyen 0.220mg/L GWMWater

Lalbert 0.210mg/L GWMWater

Nagambie 0.210mg/L Goulburn Valley Water

Wycheproof 0.200mg/L GWMWater

Minyip 0.180mg/L GWMWater

Nullawil 0.180mg/L GWMWater

Rupanyup 0.170mg/L GWMWater

Woomelang 0.170mg/L GWMWater

Gunbower 0.170mg/L Coliban Water

Ultima 0.160mg/L GWMWater

Great Western 0.110mg/L GWMWater

Dartmouth 0.110mg/L North East Water

Chloroacetic Acid

Walpeup 0.240mg/L GWMWater

Chloral Hydrate (Trichloroacetaldehyde)

Numurkah 0.043mg/L Goulburn Valley Water

Nagambie 0.035mg/L Goulburn Valley Water

Colbinabbin 0.022mg/L Goulburn Valley Water

Longwood 0.022mg/L Goulburn Valley Water

Pyalong 0.021mg/L Goulburn Murray Water

Bromodichloromethane

Ventnor 0.097mg/L Westernport Water

Cowes 0.088mg/L Westernport Water

Rhyll 0.084mg/L Westernport Water

San Remo 0.071mg/L Westernport Water

Cape Woolamai 0.066mg/L Westernport Water

2010/11 Refers To Highest Single Samples Only

Trihalomethanes 0.25mg/L

Trihalomethanes (26: 2010/11, 16: 2009/10, 41: 2008/9, - 45: 2007/8)

Manangatang 0.850mg/L Grampians Wimmera Mallee Water

Lalbert 0.610mg/L Grampians Wimmera Mallee Water

Ultima 0.550mg/L Grampians Wimmera Mallee Water

Jung 0.490mg/L Grampians Wimmera Mallee Water

Wycheproof 0.480mg/L Grampians Wimmera Mallee Water

Glenthompson 0.480mg/L Wannon Water

Woomelang 0.430mg/L Grampians Wimmera Mallee Water

Beulah 0.420mg/L Grampians Wimmera Mallee Water

Ouyen 0.400mg/L Grampians Wimmera Mallee Water

Rupunyup 0.400mg/L Grampians Wimmera Mallee Water

Minyip 0.390mg/L Grampians Wimmera Mallee Water

Nagambie 0.350mg/L Goulburn Valley Water

Horsham 0.300mg/L Grampians Wimmera Mallee Water

Quambatook 0.290mg/L Grampians Wimmera Mallee Water

Red Cliffs - 0.280mg/L Lower Murray Water

Donald 0.270mg/L Grampians Wimmera Mallee Water

Natimuk 0.270mg/L Grampians Wimmera Mallee Water

Walpeup 0.270mg/L Grampians Wimmera Mallee Water

Warracknabeal 0.270mg/L Grampians Wimmera Mallee Water

Dimboola 0.260mg/L Grampians Wimmera Mallee Water

Nullawil 0.260mg/L Grampians Wimmera Mallee Water

Cowes 0.260mg/L Westernport Water

Dunkeld 0.250mg/L Wannon Water

Robinvale 0.250mg/L Lower Murray Water

Rhyll 0.250mg/L Westernport Water

Ventor 0.250mg/L Westernport Water

Dichloroacetic acid 0.1mg/L

Dichloroacetic acid (8: 2010/11. 4: 2009/10. 3: 2008/9. 3: 2007/8)

Lalbert 0.330mg/L Grampians Wimmera Mallee Water

Manangatang 0.330mg/L Grampians Wimmera Mallee Water

Ultima 0.280mg/L Grampians Wimmera Mallee Water

Nagambie 0.210mg/L Goulburn Valley Water

Glenthompson 0.180mg/L Wannon Water

Cavendish 0.140mg/L Wannon Water

Pyalong 0.120mg/L Goulburn Valley Water

Barmah 0.110mg/L Goulburn Valley Water

Trichloroacetic acid 0.1mg/L

Trichloroacetic Acid (19: 2010/11. 16: 2009/10. 9: 2008/9. 7: 2007/8)

Manangatang 0.860mg/L Grampians Wimmera Mallee Water

Lalbert 0.560mg/L Grampians Wimmera Mallee Water

Ultima 0.540mg/L Grampians Wimmera Mallee Water

Nagambie 0.310mg/L Goulburn Valley Water

Ouyen 0.300mg/L Grampians Wimmera Mallee Water

Glenthompson 0.250mg/L Wannon Water

Beulah 0.240mg/L Grampians Wimmera Mallee Water

Nullawil 0.230mg/L Grampians Wimmera Mallee Water

Woomelang 0.220mg/L Grampians Wimmera Mallee Water

Thornton 0.200mg/L Goulburn Valley Water

Jung 0.190mg/L Grampians Wimmera Mallee Water

Minyip 0.190mg/L Grampians Wimmera Mallee Water

Great Western 0.180mg/L Grampians Wimmera Mallee Water

Rupunyap 0.170mg/L Grampians Wimmera Mallee Water

Wycheproof 0.170mg/L Grampians Wimmera Mallee Water

Pyalong 0.160mg/L Goulburn Valley Water

Barmah 0.150mg/L Goulburn Valley Water

Numurkah 0.140mg/L Goulburn Valley Water

Cudgewa 0.110mg/L North East Water

Trichloroacetaldehyde (disinfectant by product [chloral hydrate]) 0.02mg/L

(19: 2010/11. 16: 2009/10. 9: 2008/9. 7: 2007/8)

Pyalong 0.065mg/L Goulburn Valley Water

Nagambie 0.063mg/L Goulburn Valley Water

Numurkah 0.051mg/L Goulburn Valley Water

Alexandra 0.048mg/L Goulburn Valley Water

Purnim 0.040mg/L Wannon Water

Stanhope 0.040mg/L Goulburn Valley Water

Trawool 0.038mg/L Goulburn Valley Water

Thornton 0.034mg/L Goulburn Valley Water

Girgarre 0.033mg/L Goulburn Valley Water

Cavendish 0.025mg/L Wannon Water

Barmah 0.025mg/L Goulburn Valley Water

Tallarook 0.025mg/L Goulburn Valley Water

Longwood 0.024mg/L Goulburn Valley Water

Murchison 0.023mg/L Goulburn Valley Water

Nathalia 0.023mg/L Goulburn Valley Water

Dookie 0.022mg/L Goulburn Valley Water

Seymour 0.022mg/L Goulburn Valley Water

Mansfield 0.021mg/L Goulburn Valley Water

Wunghnu 0.021mg/L Goulburn Valley Water

Bromodichloromethane 0.06mg/L

Bromodichloromethane (7: 2010/11. 6: 2009/2010. 5: 2008/9)

Cowes 0.092mg/L Westernport Water

Rhyll 0.091mg/L Westernport Water

Ventor 0.090mg/L Westernport Water

Cape Woolami 0.088mg/L Westernport Water

San Remo 0.083mg/L Westernport Water

Grantville 0.073mg/L Westernport Water

Kilcunda 0.062mg/L Westernport Water

2009/2010 Refers to Highest Single Samples Only

Trihalomethanes (16 - 2009/10, 41 - 2008/9, - 45 2007/8)

Lexton 0.790mg/L Central Highlands Water

Strathbogie 0.490mg/L Goulburn Valley Water REGULATED

Wycheproof 0.390mg/L Grampians Wimmera Mallee Water

Donald 0.350mg/L Grampians Wimmera Mallee Water

Quambatook 0.330mg/L Grampians Wimmera Mallee Water

Rupunyap 0.310mg/L Grampians Wimmera Mallee Water

Pyalong 0.310mg/L Goulburn Valley Water

Inglewood 0.300mg/L Coliban Water

Thornton 0.280mg/L Goulburn Valley Water

Minyip 0.270mg/L Grampians Wimmera Mallee Water

Bealiba 0.270mg/L Coliban Water

Balmoral 0.260mg/L Wannon Water

Coleraine 0.260mg/L Wannon Water

Springhurst 0.260mg/L North East Water

Grantville 0.260mg/L Westernport Water

Fish Creek 0.250mg/L Gippsland Water

Dichloroacetic acid 0.1mg/L

Dichloroacetic Acid (4: 2009/10. 3: 2008/9. 3: 2007/8)

Cavendish 0.130mg/L - 0.043mg/L [mean] Wannon Water

Thornton 0.120mg/L Goulburn Valley Water

Bonnie Doon 0.110mg/L Goulburn Valley Water

Nagambie 0.100mg/L Goulburn Valley Water

Trichloroacetic acid 0.1mg/L

Trichloroacetic Acid (16: 2009/10. 9: 2008/9. 7: 2007/8)

Thornton 0.240mg/L Goulburn Valley Water

Lexton 0.230mg/L Central Highlands Water

Springhurst 0.230mg/L North East Water

Beulah 0.180mg/L Grampians Wimmera Mallee Water

Woomelang 0.170mg/L Grampians Wimmera Mallee Water

Bonnie Doon 0.170mg/L Goulburn Valley Water

Jung 0.150mg/L Grampians Wimmera Mallee Water

Cavendish 0.140mg/L 0.022mg/L [mean] Wannon Water

Nagambie 0.140mg/L Goulburn Valley Water

Great Western 0.130mg/L Grampians Wimmera Mallee Water

Rupunyap 0.130mg/L Grampians Wimmera Mallee Water

Wycheproof 0.130mg/L Grampians Wimmera Mallee Water

Minyip 0.120mg/L Grampians Wimmera Mallee Water

Dartmouth 0.110mg/L North East Water

Cohuna 0.100mg/L Coliban Water

Gunbower 0.100mg/L Coliban Water

Bromodichloromethane 0.06mg/L

Bromodichloromethane (6: 2009/2010. 5: 2008/9)

Grantville 0.082mg/L

Ventor 0.078mg/L

Cowes 0.074mg/L

Corinella 0.073mg/L

Rhyll 0.072mg/L

Cape Woolemai 0.063mg/L

Trichloroacetaldehyde (disinfectant by product [chloral hydrate]) 0.02mg/L

Chloral Hydrate (14: 2009/2010. 17: 2008/9)

Nagambie 45ug/L Goulburn Valley Water

Pyalong 40ug/L Goulburn Valley Water

Longwood 38ug/L Goulburn Valley Water

Bonnie Doon 31ug/L Goulburn Valley Water

Purnim 30ug/L [mean 20ug/L] [5 samples at 30ug/L] Wannon Water

Upper Delatite 27ug/L Goulburn Valley Water

Tallarook 26ug/L Goulburn Valley Water

Wunghnu 24ug/L Goulburn Valley Water

Girgarre 22ug/L Goulburn Valley Water

Cobden 20ug/L [mean 10ug/L] Wannon Water

Dunkeld 20ug/L [mean 10ug/L] Wannon Water

Simpson 20ug/L [mean 10ug/L] Wannon Water

Mortlake 10ug/L [mean 10ug/L] Wannon Water

Coleraine 10ug/L [mean 10ug/L] Wannon Water

2008/9 Data (Refers to single samples only. ADWG refers to Australian Drinking Water Guidelines)

Trihalomethanes (41: 2008/9. 45: 2007/8)

2008/9 Woomelang Trihalomethanes 0.760mg/L GWMWater 3.04 times the ADWG

2008/9 Jung Trihalomethanes 0.750mg/L GWMWater 3.00 times the ADWG

4 August 2008 Lexton Trihalomethanes 0.670 mg/L Central Highlands Water 2.68 times the ADWG

2008/9 Minyip Trihalomethanes 0.660mg/L GWMWater 2.64 times the ADWG

2008/9 Coleraine Trihalomethanes 0.660mg/L Wannon Water 2.64 times the ADWG (12 readings above ADWG)

2008/9 Beulah Trihalomethanes 0.560mg/L GWMWater 2.24 times the ADWG

2008/9 Donald Trihalomethanes 0.530mg/L GWMWater 2.12 times the ADWG

2008/9 Murtoa Trihalomethanes 0.520mg/L GWMWater 2.08 times the ADWG

2008/9 Warracknabeal Trihalomethanes 0.510mg/L GWMWater 2.04 times the ADWG

7 October 2008 Majorca Trihalomethanes 0.500mg/L Central Highlands Water 2.00 times the ADWG

2008/9 Rupunyap Trihalomethanes 0.500mg/L GWMWater 2.00 times the ADWG

2008/9 Alma Trihalomethanes 0.490mg/L Central Highlands Water 1.96 times the ADWG

2008/9 Maryborough Trihalomethanes 0.480mg/L Central Highlands Water 1.92 times the ADWG

7 October 2008 Timor Trihalomethanes 0.470mg/L Central Highlands Water 1.88 times the ADWG

7/8 July 2008 Daisy Hill Trihalomethanes 0.440mg/l Central Highlands Water 1.76 times the ADWG

7 October 2008 Bet Bet Trihalomethanes 0.440mg/L Central Highlands Water 1.76 times the ADWG

2008/9 Wycheproof Trihalomethanes 0.440mg/L GWMWater 1.76 times the ADWG

2008/9 Quambatook Trihalomethanes 0.430mg/L GWMWater 1.72 times the ADWG

27 October 2008 Carisbrook Trihalomethanes 0.420mg/L Central Highlands Water 1.68 times the ADWG

11 November 2008 Daisy Hill Trihalomethanes 0.410mg/L Central Highlands Water 1.64 times the ADWG

7/8 July 2008 Carisbrook Trihalomethanes 0.400mg/L Central Highlands Water 1.60 times the ADWG

7/8 July 2008 Alma Trihalomethanes 0.380mg/L Central Highlands Water 1.52 times the ADWG

7/8 July 2008 Timor Trihalomethanes 0.380mg/L Central Highlands Water 1.52 times the ADWG

2008/9 Pyalong Trihalomethanes 0.380mg/L Goulburn Valley Water 1.52 times the ADWG

6 October 2008 Alma Trihalomethanes 0.370mg/L Central Highlands Water 1.48 times the ADWG

7 October 2008 Maryborough Trihalomethanes 0.370mg/L Central Highlands Water 1.48 times the ADWG

7/8/July 2008 Maryborough Trihalomethanes 0.360mg/L Central Highlands Water 1.44 times the ADWG

7 October 2008 Daisy Hill Trihalomethanes 0.360mg/L Central Highlands Water 1.44 times the ADWG

2008/9 Rainbow Trihalomethanes 0.360mg/L GWMWater 1.44 times the ADWG

11 November 2008 Maryborough Trihalomethanes 0.348mg/L Central Highlands Water 1.392 times the ADWG

2008/9 Bealiba Trihalomethanes 0.330mg/l Coliban Water 1.32 times the ADWG

2008/9 Serpentine Trihalomethanes 0.310mg/l Coliban Water 1.24 times the ADWG

2008/9 Hopetoun Trihalomethanes 0.3mg/L GWMWater 1.20 times the ADWG

11 November 2008 Timor Trihalomethanes 0.290mg/L Central Highlands Water 1.16 times the ADWG

9 October 2008 Rokewood Trihalomethanes 0.280mg/L Central Highlands Water 1.12 times the ADWG

11 November 2008 Majorca Trihalomethanes 0.280mg/L Central Highlands Water 1.12 times the ADWG

2008/9 Enfield Trihalomethanes 0.280mg/l Central Highlands Water 1.12 times the ADWG

6 November 2008 Rokewood Trihalomethanes 0.260mg/L Central Highlands Water 1.04 times the ADWG

2008/9 Charlton Trihalomethanes 0.260mg/L GWMWater 1.04 times the ADWG

11/2/09 Pyalong Trihalomethanes Goulburn Valley Water

11/3/09 Pyalong Trihalomethanes Goulburn Murray Water

 

Trichloroacetic Acid (9: 2008/9. 7: 2007/8)

2008/09 Thornton Trichloroacetic Acid 0.250mg/L Goulburn Valley Water 2.50 times the ADWG

2008/09 Buxton Trichloroacetic Acid 0.180mg/L Goulburn Valley Water 1.80 times the ADWG

2008/09 Upper Delatite Trichloroacetic Acid 0.150mg/L Goulburn Valley Water 1.50 times the ADWG

2008/9 Rupunyap Trichloroacetic Acid 0.150mg/L GWMWater 1.50 times the ADWG

2008/09 Bonnie Doon Trichloroacetic Acid 0.130mg/L Goulburn Valley Water 1.30 times the ADWG

2008/09 Nagambie Trichloroacetic Acid 0.100mg/L Goulburn Valley Water 1.00 times the ADWG

27/11/08 Upper Delatite Trichloroacetic Acid Goulburn Valley Water

10/3/09 Buxton Trichloroacetic Acid Goulburn Murray Water

17/3/09 Thornton Trichloroacetic Acid Goulburn Valley Water

16/6/09 Thornton Trichloroacetic acid Goulburn Valley Water

 

Dichloroacetic Acid (3: 2008/9. 3: 2007/8)

2008/09 Thornton Dichloroacetic Acid 0.140mg/L Goulburn Valley Water 1.40 times the ADWG

2008/09 Buxton Dichloroacetic Acid 0.120mg/L Goulburn Valley Water 1.20 times the ADWG

19/5/09 Thornton Dichloroacetic Acid Goulburn Valley Water

 

Bromodichloromethane (5: 2008/9)

2008/9 Rhyll Bromodichloromethane 0.071mg/L Westernport Water 1.183 times the WHO

2008/9 Cowes Bromodichloromethane 0.07mg/L Westernport Water 1.167 times the WHO

2008/9 Grantville Bromodichloromethane 0.0066mg/L Westernport Water 1.10 times the WHO

2008/9 Ventor Bromodichloromethane 0.065mg/L Westernport Water 1.083 times the WHO

2008/9 Kilcunda Bromodichloromethane 0.062mg/L Westernport Water 1.033 times WHO

 

Chloral Hydrate (17: 2008/9)

22/7/08 Thornton Chloral Hydrate Goulburn Valley Water

7/8/2008 Thornton Chloral Hydrate Goulburn Valley Water

16/9/2008 Thornton Chloral Hydrate Goulburn Valley Water

15/10/2008 Longwood Chloral Hydrate Goulburn Valley Water

11/11/2008 Upper Delatite Chloral Hydrate Goulburn Valley Water

18/11/2008 Thornton Chloral Hydrate Goulburn Valley Water

1/12/2008 Broadford Chloral Hydrate Goulburn Valley Water

2/12/2008 Eildon Chloral Hydrate Goulburn Valley Water

3/12/2008 Violet Town Chloral Hydrate Goulburn Valley Water

6/1/2009 Eildon Chloral Hydrate Goulburn Valley Water

10/2/2009 Upper Delatite Chloral Hydrate Goulburn Valley Water

13/3/09 Thornton Chloral Hydrate Goulburn Valley Water

17/3/2009 Thornton Chloral Hydrate Goulburn Valley Water

7/4/2009 Eildon Chloral Hydrate Goulburn Valley Water

14/4/2009 Upper Delatite Chloral Hydrate Goulburn Valley Water

13/5/2009 Longwood Chloral Hydrate Goulburn Valley Water

10/6/2009 Longwood Chloral Hydrate Goulburn Valley Water

As well as the above list, the list below compiles communities in Victoria who had THM levels above >80mg/L (which is the US guideline for THM's in drinking water) in 2008/9. Note that these readings were maximum readings only.

Birchip 0.250mg/L (GWMWater), Great Western 0.250 mg/L (GWMWater), Cape Paterson 0.250 mg/L (South Gippsland Water), Henty 0.240 mg/L (Wannon Water), Myrniong 0.239 mg/L (Western Water), Ventor 0.235 mg/L (Westernport Water), Horsham 0.230 mg/L (GWMWater), Longwood 0.230 mg/L (Goulburn Valley Water), Grantville 0.228 mg/L (Westernport Water), Avoca 0.223 mg/L (Central Highlands Water), St.Arnaud 0.220 mg/L (GWMWater), Wonthaggi 0.220 mg/L (South Gippsland Water), Haven 0.200 mg/L (GWMWater), Cavendish 0.220 mg/L (Wannon Water), Buxton 0.220 mg/L (Goulburn Valley Water), Rhyll 0.212 mg/L (Westernport Water), Cowes 0.210 mg/L (Westernport Water), Thornton 0.200 mg/L (Goulburn Valley Water), Fish Creek 0.200 mg/L (South Gippsland Water), Inverloch 0.200 mg/L (South Gippsland Water), Sandford 0.190 mg/L (Wannon Water), Goornong 0.190 mg/L (Coliban Water), Seaspray 0.190 mg/L (Gippsland Water), Kilcunda 0.186 mg/L (Westernport Water), Dimboola 0.180 mg/L (GWMWater), Clunes 0.180 mg/L (Central Highlands Water), Violet Town 0.180 mg/L (Goulburn Valley Water), Nowa Nowa 0.180 mg/L (East Gippsland Water), Cape Woolamai 0.178 mg/L (Westernport Water), San Remo 0.177 mg/L (Westernport Water), Meredith 0.171 mg/L (Barwon Water), Purnim 0.170 mg/L (Wannon Water), Bonnie Doon 0.170 mg/L (Goulburn Valley Water), Mallacoota 0.170 mg/L (East Gippsland Water), Lance Creek 0.170 mg/L (South Gippsland Water), Merino 0.160 mg/L (Wannon Water), Beaufort 0.160 mg/L (Central Highlands Water), Springhurst 0.160 mg/L (North East Water), Upper Delatite 0.160 mg/L (Goulburn Valley Water), Koonwarra 0.160 mg/L (South Gippsland Water), Leongatha 0.160 mg/L (South Gippsland Water), Meeniyan 0.160 mg/L (South Gippsland Water), Toolern Vale 0.153 mg/L (Western Water), Balmoral 0.150 mg/L (Wannon Water), Casterton 0.150 mg/L (Wannon Water), Noorat/Glenormiston 0.150 mg/L (Wannon Water), Terang 0.150 mg/L (Wannon Water), Cohuna (Urban) 0.150 mg/L (Coliban Water), Dartmouth 0.150 mg/L (North East Water), Wallan 0.150 mg/L (Yarra Valley Water), Yarra Glen 0.150 mg/L (Yarra Valley Water), Corinella 0.144 mg/L (Westernport Water), Aireys Inlet 0.141 mg/L (Barwon Water), Manangatang 0.140 mg/L (GWMWater), Walpeup 0.140 mg/L (GWMWater), Cohuna (Rural) 0.140 mg/L (Coliban Water), Broadford 0.140 mg/L (Goulburn Valley Water), Kilmore 0.140 mg/L (Goulburn Valley Water), Nagambie 0.140 mg/L (Goulburn Valley Water), Dumbalk 0.140 mg/L (South Gippsland Water), Foster 0.140 mg/L (South Gippsland Water), Korumburra 0.140 mg/L (South Gippsland Water), Port Welshpool 0.140 mg/L (South Gippsland Water), Brim 0.130mg/L (GWMWater), Lalbert 0.130 mg/L (GWMWater), Inglewood 0.130 mg/L (Coliban Water), Raywood 0.130 mg/L (Coliban Water), Numurkah 0.130 mg/L (Goulburn Valley Water), Wandong/Heathcote Junction 0.130 mg/L (Goulburn Valley Water), Merrangbaur 0.130 mg/L (East Gippsland Water), Port Franklin 0.130 mg/L (South Gippsland Water), Healesville 0.130 mg/L (Yarra Valley Water), Birregurra 0.121 mg/L (Barwon Water), Forrest 0.121 mg/L (Barwon Water), Little River West 0.121 mg/L (Barwon Water), Torquay 0.121 mg/L (Barwon Water), Halls Gap 0.120 mg/L (GWMWater), Sea Lake 0.120 mg/L (GWMWater), Cobden 0.120 mg/L (Wannon Water), Derrinallum 0.120 mg/L (Wannon Water), Dunkeld 0.120 mg/L (Wannon Water), Bridgewater 0.120 mg/L (Coliban Water), Euroa 0.120 mg/L (Goulburn Valley Water), Waterford Park 0.120 mg/L (Goulburn Valley Water), Wunghnu 0.120 mg/L (Goulburn Valley Water), Yea 0.120 mg/L (Goulburn Valley Water), Bairnsdale 0.120 mg/L (East Gippsland Water), Eagle Point/Paynesville 0.120 mg/L (East Gippsland Water), Sunlakes-Toorloo 0.120 mg/L (East Gippsland Water), Toora 0.120 mg/L (South Gippsland Water), Boolara 0.120 mg/L (Gippsland Water), Darley 0.118 mg/L (Western Water), Bass 0.114 mg/L (Westernport Water), Lancefield 0.113 mg/L (Western Water), Mount Macedon 0.112 mg/L (Western Water), Ouyen 0.110 mg/L (GWMWater), Cudgewa 0.110 mg/L (North East Water), Wodonga Logic 0.110 mg/L (North East Water), Toolamba 0.110 mg/L (Goulburn Valley Water), Jumbuk 0.110 mg/L (Gippsland Water), Warragul South 0.110 mg/L (Gippsland Water), Belgrave 0.110 mg/L (South East Water), Dandenong 0.110 mg/L (South East Water), Mount Martha 0.110 mg/L (South East Water), Wantirna 0.110 mg/L (South East Water), Maddingley 0.109 mg/L (Western Water), Macedon 0.107 mg/L (Western Water), Caroline Springs 0.103 mg/L (City West Water), Bellarine 0.101 mg/L (Barwon Water), Richmond 0.101 mg/L (City West Water), Nullawil 0.100 mg/L (GWMWater), Stawell 0.100 mg/L (GWMWater), Simpson 0.100 mg/L (Wannon Water), Rockbank 0.100 mg/L (Western Water), Tooborac 0.100 mg/L (Coliban Water), Talbot 0.100 mg/L (Central Highlands Water), Corryong High Level 0.100 mg/L (North East Water), Caulfield 0.100 mg/L (South East Water), Dromana 0.100 mg/L (South East Water), Hastings 0.100 mg/L (South East Water), Rye 0.100 mg/L (South East Water), Malvern 0.100 mg/L (Yarra Valley Water), Taylors Lakes 0.099 mg/L (City West Water), Bayswater 0.099 mg/L (South East Water), Skipton 0.098 mg/L (Central Highlands Water), Lindenow 0.098 mg/L (East Gippsland Water), Sarsfield/Bruthen 0.098 mg/L (East Gippsland Water), Pomonal 0.097 mg/L (GWMWater), Ultima 0.097 mg/L (GWMWater), Clifton Springs 0.097 mg/L (Barwon Water), Glen Waverley 0.097 mg/L (Yarra Valley Water), Somerton 0.097 mg/L (Yarra Valley Water), Warranwood 0.097 mg/L (Yarra Valley Water), Leopold 0.096 mg/L (Barwon Water), Mortlake 0.095 mg/L (Wannon Water), Lorne 0.095 mg/L (Barwon Water), Boort 0.095 mg/L (Coliban Water), Trafalgar 0.095 mg/L (Gippsland Water), Warragul 0.095 mg/L (Gippsland Water), Yallourn North 0.095 mg/L (Gippsland Water), Bunyip 0.095 mg/L (South East Water), Doncaster 0.095 mg/L (Yarra Valley Water), Doncaster 0.095 mg/L (Yarra Valley Water), Mooroopna 0.094 mg/L (Goulburn Valley Water), Shoreham 0.094 mg/L (South East Water), Lilydale 0.094 mg/L (Yarra Valley Water), Dunolly 0.093 mg/L (Coliban Water), Pakenham 0.093 mg/L (South East Water), Cressy 0.092 mg/L (Barwon Water), Gellibrand 0.092 mg/L (Barwon Water), Merrimu 0.092 mg/L (Western Water), Gunbower 0.092 mg/L (Coliban Water), Katamatite 0.092 mg/L (Goulburn Valley Water), Yarragon 0.092 mg/L (Gippsland Water), Tullamarine 0.092 mg/L (City West Water), Laanecoorie 0.091 mg/L (Coliban Water), Mornington 0.091 mg/L (South East Water), Bittern 0.090 mg/L (South East Water), Upper Beaconsfield 0.089 mg/L (South East Water), Highton 0.088 mg/L (Barwon Water), Winchelsea 0.088 mg/L (Barwon Water), Lerderderg 0.088 mg/L (Western Water), Little River 0.088 mg/L (City West Water), Ferntree Gully 0.087 mg/L (South East Water), Frankston 0.087 mg/L (South East Water), Ridge/Monbulk 0.087 mg/L (Yarra Valley Water), Anglesea 0.086 mg/L (Barwon Water), Lower Plenty 0.086 mg/L (Yarra Valley Water), Montpellier 0.085 mg/L (Barwon Water), St.James 0.085 mg/L (North East Water), Shepparton 0.085 mg/L (Goulburn Valley Water), Pyramid Hill 0.084 mg/L (Coliban Water), Yinnar 0.084 mg/L (Gippsland Water), Batesford 0.083 mg/L (Barwon Water), Pettavel 0.083 mg/L (Barwon Water), Tarnagulla 0.083 mg/L (Coliban Water), Balnarring 0.083 mg/L (South East Water), Mitcham 0.083 mg/L (Yarra Valley Water), Ocean Grove 0.082 mg/L (Barwon Water), Thorpdale 0.082 mg/L (Gippsland Water), Kew 0.082 mg/L (Yarra Valley Water), Rutherglen 0.081 mg/L (North East Water), Toongabbie 0.081 mg/L (Gippsland Water), Frankston South 0.081 mg/L (South East Water), Eildon 0.080 mg/L (Goulburn Valley Water), Strathmore 0.080 mg/L (City West Water), Montrose 0.080 mg/L (Yarra Valley Water).

 

 

 

Trihalomethanes 2007/8

Community Readings Above Water Quality Standard 0.250mg/l

Town/Suburb

Water Authority

Maximum Reading

Minimum Reading

Balmoral Wannon Water 0.970mg/l 0.008mg/l
Avoca Central Highlands Water 0.822mg/l 0.173mg/l
Jung Grampians Wimmera Mallee Water 0.800mg/l 0.034mg/l
Murtoa Grampians Wimmera Mallee Water 0.630mg/l 0.270mg/l
Beulah Grampians Wimmera Mallee Water 0.610mg/l 0.062mg/l
Coleraine Wannon Water 0.610mg/l 0.042mg/l
Timor Central Highlands Water 0.560mg/l 0.002mg/l
Lexton Central Highlands Water 0.540mg/l 0.046mg/l
Alma Central Highlands Water 0.534mg/l 0.025mg/l
Woolmelang Grampians Wimmera Mallee Water 0.520mg/l 0.210mg/l
Daisy Hill Central Highlands Water 0.510mg/l 0.250mg/l
Maryborough Central Highlands Water 0.510mg/l 0.237mg/l
Minyip Grampians Wimmera Mallee Water 0.510mg/l 0.001mg/l
Wycheproof Grampians Wimmera Mallee Water 0.500mg/l 0.220mg/l
Seaspray Gippsland Water 0.450mg/l 0.034mg/l
Carisbrook Central Highlands Water 0.444mg/l 0.110mg/l
Warracknabeal Grampians Wimmera Mallee Water 0.430mg/l 0.220mg/l
Donald Grampians Wimmera Mallee Water 0.420mg/l 0.220mg/l
Dimboola Grampians Wimmera Mallee Water 0.420mg/l 0.120mg/l
Majorca Central Highlands Water 0.420mg/l 0.008mg/l
Rainbow Grampians Wimmera Mallee Water 0.380mg/l 0.200mg/l
Rupanyup Grampians Wimmera Mallee Water 0.380mg/l 0.160mg/l
Nullawil Grampians Wimmera Mallee Water 0.360mg/l 0.053mg/l
Cowes Westernport Water 0.350mg/l (mean 0.249mg/l) 0.170mg/l
Grantville Westernport Water 0.350mg/l (mean 0.207mg/l) 0.012mg/l
Charlton Grampians Wimmera Mallee Water 0.350mg/l 0.012mg/l
Ararat Grampians Wimmera Mallee Water 0.340mg/l 0.053mg/l
Ventor Westernport Water 0.340mg/l (mean 0.179mg/l) 0.029mg/l
Goornong Coliban Water 0.330mg/l  
Bridgewater Coliban Water 0.320mg/l  
Bet Bet Central Highlands Water 0.318mg/l 0.001mg/l
Cape Woolamai Westernport Water 0.300mg/l (mean 0.211mg/l) 0.160mg/l
Serpentine Coliban Water 0.290mg/l  
Hopetoun Grampians Wimmera Mallee Water 0.290mg/l 0.071mg/l
Inglewood Coliban Water 0.280mg/l  
Rhyll Westernport Water 0.280mg/l (mean 0.219mg/l) 0.140mg/l
Kilcunda Westernport Water 0.270mg/l (mean 0.183mg/l) 0.097mg/l
Great Western Grampians Wimmera Mallee Water 0.270mg/l 0.079mg/l
Wonthaggi South Gippsland Water 0.270mg/l <0.071mg/l
San Remo Westernport Water 0.260mg/l (mean 0.190mg/l) 0.100mg/l
Quambatook Grampians Wimmera Mallee Water 0.260mg/l 0.100mg/l
Cape Paterson Westernport Water 0.260mg/l <0.089mg/l
Brim Grampians Wimmera Mallee Water 0.260mg/l 0.013mg/l
Meeniyan South Gippsland Water 0.250mg/l <0.096mg/l
Corinella Westernport Water 0.250mg/l (mean 0.171mg/l) 0.130mg/l

 

Trichloroacetic Acid

Above Water Quality Standard 0.1 milligrams per litre

Town/Suburb

Water Authority

Maximum Reading

Minimum Reading

Thornton Goulburn Valley Water 0.350mg/l 0.075mg/l
Buxton Goulburn Valley Water 0.250mg/l 0.031mg/l
Upper Delatite Goulburn Valley Water 0.250mg/l <0.005mg/l
Longwood Goulburn Valley Water 0.200mg/l 0.051mg/l
Nagambie Goulburn Valley Water 0.175mg/l 0.037mg/l
Dartmouth North East Water 0.130mg/l 0.021mg/l
Porepunkah North East Water 0.110mg/l 0.005mg/l

 

Dichloroacetic Acid Results

Above Water Quality Standard 0.1 milligrams per litre

Town/Suburb

Water Authority

Maximum Reading

Minimum Reading

Thornton Goulburn Valley Water 0.160mg/l 0.006min
Longwood Goulburn Valley Water 0.110mg/l 0.011min
Upper Delatite Goulburn Valley Water 0.100mg/l <0.005min