NNNN BAD DEVELOPERS NNNN

EXPOSING DEVELOPERS WHO FAIL TO APPRECIATE AND RESPECT COMMUNITY, ENVIRONMENT AND SPIRIT OF THE LAND

HOME Contact: turbidwater@hotmail.com Search: search tips sitemap

Woori Yallock Creek

(part of Melbourne's drinking water supply)

Yarra River, upstream of Sugarloaf Reservoir, contaminated with pesticides (Jan 28 2011)

First study looking at pesticides in the upper Yarra in 30 years 'Effects of pesticides monitored with three sampling methods in 24 sites on macroinvertebrates and microorganisms' published in Environmental Science and Technology (January 2011)
Surface Water
4,4-DDD 0.022ug/L, 4,4-DDE 0.024ug/L, 4,4-DDT 0.046ug/L, Atrazine 0.31ug/L, Azoxystrobin 0.02ug/L, Boscalid 0.02ug/L, Carbaryl 0.039ug/L, Chlorpyrifos 0.04ug/L, Cyproconazole 0.39ug/L, Cyprodinil 0.02ug/L, DEA 1.3ug/L, DIA 1.3ug/L, Dieldrin 0.022ug/L, Diflenoconazole 0.15ug/L, Dimethoate 0.094ug/L, Dimethomorph 0.01ug/L, Endosulfane 0.012ug/L, Fenarimol 0.2ug/L, Fenoxycarb 0.034ug/L, Fipronil 0.22ug/L, Hexazinone 0.96ug/L, Imidacloprid 0.59ug/L, Indoxacarb 0.33ug/L, Iprodione 3ug/L, Linuron 0.6ug/L, Metalaxyl 0.012ug/L, Methiocarb 1.2ug/L, Myclobutanil 2.9ug/L, Oxadixyl 0.39ug/L, Penconazole 0.05ug/L, Pendimethalin 0.04ug/L, Pirimicarb 1.4ug/L, Prochloraz 0.06ug/L, Procymidone 0.91ug/L, Prometryn 21ug/L, Propargite 0.15ug/L, Propiconazole 0.021ug/L, Pyraclostrobin 0.1ug/L, Pyrimethanil 70ug/L, Simazine 15ug/L, Spinosad 0.03ug/L, Tebuconazole 0.04ug/L, Tebufenozide 0.045ug/L, Terbutryne, Tetraconazole 0.059ug/L, Triadimefon 0.012ug/L, Triadimenol 0.02ug/L, Trichlorfon 0.006ug/L, Trifloxystrobin 0.73ug/L.
Sediment
4,4-DDD 29ug/kg, 4.4-DDE 32ug/kg, 4,4-DDT 13ug/kg, Atrazine 2ug/kg, Azoxystrobin 3ug/kg, Bifenthrin 30ug/kg, Boscalid 48ug/kg, Carbaryl 0.039ug/kg, Chlorothalonil 460ug/kg, Chlorpyrifos 42ug/kg, Cyprodinil 2ug/kg, Diazinon 17ug/kg, Dieldrin 20ug/kg, Fipronil 5ug/kg, Hexachlorobenzene 4ug/kg, Hexazinone 123ug/kg, Imidacloprid 10ug/kg, Indoxacarb 9ug/kg, Iprodione 170ug/kg, Linuron 18ug/kg, Metalaxyl 1ug/kg, Myclobutanil 120ug/kg, Oxadixyl 2ug/kg, Permethrin 80ug/kg, Pirimicarb 26ug/kg, Prochloraz 3ug/kg, Prometryn 374ug/kg, Propyzamide 180ug/kg, Pyraclostrobin 1ug/kg, Pyrimethanil 272ug/kg, Simazine 260ug/kg, Spinosad 100ug/kg, Tebufenozide 2ug/kg, Trifloxystrobin 793ug/kg.

 

Rewards Group Now Under Voluntary Adminstration (May 16 2010)

Strawberry Farms in MIS Strife (March 24 2010)

For pesticides in other Victorian Water Supplies see here

Aerial Image 2009: New Managed Investment Scheme Berry (Strawberry) Projects near Woori Yallock, east of Melbourne, running along side Woori Yallock Creek, Melbourne's drinking water supply. Image looking south east.

Pesticides used by the Strawberry industry at Woori Yallock include;

the fungicides: Pyrimethanil, Myclobutanil, Iprodione, Carbendazim, Trifloxystrobin, Captan, Fenhexamid, Thiram, Quinoxyfen

(Carbendazim has recently been linked to deformed fish controversy in Qld)

the insecticides: Spinosad, Methanol/Methomyl, Pirimicarb, Fipronil, Maldison, Trichlorfon.

the miticides: Bifenazate,Etoxazole, Milbemectin

The herbicides: Glufosinate-Ammonium, Carfenatrazone-ethyl, diquat/paraquat (herbicides),

The soil fumigant: chloropicrin and the massive off-label use of Chlorpyrifos for control of Western Flower Thrip.

Aerial Image 2009: New Managed Investment Scheme Berry (Strawberry) Projects near Woori Yallock, east of Melbourne, running along side Woori Yallock Creek, Melbourne's drinking water supply. Image looking west.

Aerial Image 2009: New storage and worker facility, amongst Strawberry in very close proximity ( mere metres) from Woori Yallock Creek.

Late 2008: Woori Yallock Creek: MIS burning of massive rubbish piles, including waste products, including plastic. This toxic cloud of smoke drifted hundreds of metres into nearby residences.

Woori Yallock Creek catchment 2007; highlighting intensive pesticide use due to agriculture. Dark Green = Vineyards, Light Green = Orchards, Red = Berry Farms, Pink =Nurseries/Cut Flowers, Orange = Potatoes, Tan = Vegetables, Purple = Tree Plantations

"Wandin Yallock-Woori Yallock System. The faunal community in Wandin Yallock Creek, site 7, showed very marked signs of stress. The meagre dissolved oxygen data available indicate quite satisfactory levels and as the fauna do not reflect the usual signs of organic enrichment, dissolved oxygen must be dismissed as a possible source of stress. Levels of trace metals are generally low although a single mercury reading (0.1ug/l) is at the level at which further investigation is recommended. Sediment analyses are not available, but the rural aspect of the site suggests that trace metals are not likely to be a source of stress...

On the basis of available water quality data, pesticides appear to be the most likely toxic influence at this site. TDE, DDE, DDT and Dieldrin have been detected in the sediments at a site 2 km downstream of a major market gardening and horticultural area, and DDT and Dieldrin have been found in sediments of a site in the middle of the market gardening area, (EPA 1982). The latter site corresponds to our site 7. All concentrations were in the range of 0.01-0.05mg/kg. Water samples from the above sites have indicated the presence of DDT, Dieldrin, Lindane, 2,4,5-T and, at the lower site, 2,4-D., (EPA 1982). There is also some suggestion of the presence of organophosphorus pesticides or their metabolites at the lower site. In 23 of the 26 cases, the levels of pesticides in these water samples exceeded the Interim Threshold Estimates, by as much as an order of magnitude. For the reasons given on P.93, the ITE values may have been exceeded on a number of other occasions. It thus seems likely that the fauna is being exposed to chronic sublethal levels of pesticides. In some instances DDT, Dieldrin, and Lindane were present in single water samples. As available data suggest that the toxicity of pesticides in combination is frequently additive and often syngergistic (NAS/NAE 1973), the possibility of acute toxic effects must be acknowledged (EPA 1982). The EPA (1982) study found the greatest amounts of pesticides were present in winter water samples from Wandin Yallock Creek, and suggested that this may be due to remobilization of sediments during high flow periods..." p100-101 Environmental Studies Program Ministry for Conservation. The Benthic Macroinvertebrates of the Yarra River and its Tributaries 1982. Environmental Studies Series Publication No.362

Wandin Yallock Creek catchment 2007; highlighting intensive pesticide use due to agriculture. Dark Green = Vineyards, Light Green = Orchards, Red = Berry Farms, Pink =Nurseries/Cut Flowers, Orange = Potatoes, Tan = Vegetables.

Site 6, Woori Yallock Creek may also be affected by pesticides. TDE, DDE, DDT and Dieldrin have been detected in sediment samples at a site upstream of Wandin Yallock Creek confluence, and 8km downstream of areas of intensive market gardening and potato growing (EPA 1982). Values were in the range of 0.01mg/kg to 0.08mg/kg. Dieldrin, but not DDT, has been detected in water samples (0.01-0.03 mg/l). These levels exceed the ITE. Site 6 was 2km downstream of the EPA pesticide sampling point, and downstream of the confluence with Wandin Yallock Creek. Because understanding of transport mechanisms of pesticides in water and sediments is insufficient, it is not possible to estimate likely pesticide levels at Site 6." p100-101 Environmental Studies Program Ministry for Conservation. The Benthic Macroinvertebrates of the Yarra River and its Tributaries 1982. Environmental Studies Series Publication No.362

In 1998, a Water Quality Report for the Woori Yallock Catchment was conducted by Stream Research. They found two sites in the catchment, Cockatoo Creek and Emerald Creek had detectable dieldrin levels in sediment, with concentrations of 0.012mg/L and 0.007mg/L respectively. DDT was also detected in sediment in Emerald Creek (0.02mg/L), Shepherd Creek (0.01mg/L), Sassafrass Creek (0.01mg/L) and Wandin Yallock Creek (0.02mg/L).

Site of Yellingo, only remaining habitat for the Helmeted Honeyeater

Yarra River Catchment

New Yarra River Water Supply Maps Here and Here

Upstream of Melbourne's Drinking Water Supply Offtake at Sugarloaf Reservoir.

Methyl Bromide Hotspot!

Toxic Reaction (Silvan Multiple Chemical Sensitivities) March 4, 2008

Addiction to Banned Fumigant Hard to Kick (Oct 07)

Chemical Reaction Strawberries (Feb 1 08)

Pesticides detected in Strawberries (Feb 08)

(Pesticides detected included; Boscalid, Captan, Carbaryl, Chlorpyrifos, Dimethoate, Endosulfan-Beta, Iprodione, Pirimicarb, Pyrethanil)

Some of the pesticides registered for use in strawberries in Victoria

Rewards Group (Feb/Mar 08)

For more information on Sugarloaf Reservoir see here

For more information on the Yarra River see here

The city of Melbourne has reputably very good quality drinking water, with most of the water sourced from 'closed' catchments where land use is minimised. However a large amount of water is pumped from the Yarra River at Yering Gorge. Upstream of Yering Gorge is a very large amount of intensive agriculture, including horticulture. The above image shows the Stoney Creek catchment which flows into Woori Yallock Creek about about 5km east of Monbulk.

The area is targeted by horticulturalists because of its excellent soils - Older Volcanics (Olivine Basalts and titanaugite basalts, dense, glassy, non-vesticular. Alkaline dykes, deeply weathered).

Horticulture can use vast amounts of pesticides, in the event of heavy rainfall, a portion of this chemical load can enter local waterways. "Wauchope (1978) reviewed pesticide losses from agricultural fields and found that losses range from 5 to 16 per cent with the highest levels occurring from wettable powder formulations applied to the soil surface and followed by intense rain. Pesticide losses from agricultural fields on a long term basis was found to range mostly from 0.5 to 2.2 per cent with an average loss of 1.2 per cent"

Water from Sugarloaf is used mainly in Melbourne's northern suburbs.

The Wandin Yallock area is one of the most intensively farmed areas of Australia. Cut flowers and bulbs exported all over Australia are grown in this region as are most of Victoria's Cherries, about 50% of Victoria's strawberries and a large amount of carrots. Other vegetables grown in the area include; beans, brussel sprouts, cabbages, potatoes, pumpkins, rhubarb, turnips and fruit such as apples, peaches, citrus and apricots. Nuts are also grown in the region.

According to DEH Exemption List for Non-QPS Applications of Methyl Bromide in 2007; approximately 61% of Methyl Bromide used in Australia is for Victorian Strawberry Runners, with 7.4% used by Victorian flower growers. 68.79% of Methyl Bromide used in Australia is in Victoria with a large % being used within the water supply regions of Melbourne's catchments.

"The readily accessible nature of the aquifer system to recharge which is probably within the range of 5-10% of the rainfall, also means that it is sensitive to the introduction of contamination. The extensive use of pesticides, herbicides and synthetic fertilisers throughout the study area poses a possible hazard to ground water quality. Analyses from recently drilled bores suggest an increased incidence of several ions that may be attributable to land applied substances. The incidence of in surface water of pesticides and herbicides has been the subject of a recent study by the EPA Water Quality Branch". Dandenong Ranges Wandin Yallock Investigation by A. Shugg Unpublished Report 1984.

Silvan Reservoir lies on the eastern side of the Dandenongs. It is a closed catchment, however large scale horticulture occurs just east of Silvan. The most heavy horticulture is located about 15-20km south west of the Yarra River. Sugarloaf Reservoir then lies another 15km downstream.

Main insect pests in crops and orchards in the Upper Yarra would include; Aphids, European Red Mite, Elephant Beetle, Thrip, Codling Moth, Two Spotted Mite, Mite, Potato Moth, European Moth, Potato Grub, Wireworm, Light Brown Moth, Grubs, Scale, Heliothis grub, Dimple Bug, Meally Bug, Bryobia Mite, Oriental Fruit Mite, Root Weevil and slugs.

Main fungi found in crops and orchards would include; Black Spot, Brown Rot, Powdery Mildew, Blight, Target Spot, Root, Leaf Curl, Silverleaf.

Main weeds would include; Wild Turnip, capeweed, clover, summergrass, wild radish, oxalis

Bacterial problems in orchards would include; pseudomanis syringae.

August 2007: Orchards and Berri farms Wandin Yallock catchment - Silvan.

February 2008: Spraying crops near Yarra River, about 1km north of Woori Yallock

August 2007: Wandin Yallock Creek (Silvan), contains many dams and much of the upper reaches of the Creek are small pools.

2007: Wandin Yallock Creek (Wandin East) - Melbourne's drinking water.

2007 August: Wandin Yallock Creek (Wandin East)

August 2007: Wandin Yallock Creek (Wandin East) in very close proximity to berri farms.

Rewards Group/Ozfresh Strawberries Managed Investment Scheme.

Surface tensions shatter valley calm Sunday Age February 24, 2008

In the midst of Victoria's water crisis, a neighbourhood dispute over water supplies and the use of pesticides has turned ugly, with allegations of standover tactics and intimidation.

A clash between small landowners and two of Australia's largest strawberry growers over the use of pesticides along Woori Yallock Creek has grown to embroil six government departments, the Shire of Yarra Ranges and the police. Water from Woori Yallock Creek drains into the Yarra River, which supplies the Sugarloaf Reservoir and Melbourne's northern and western suburbs.

But residents in this picturesque valley in Melbourne's east claim their drinking water and local creek are being contaminated with pesticides, dust and earthworks run-off from neighbouring strawberry farms. They say the dust plumes and pesticide drifts are so bad that they cannot leave their windows open at night. They have started buying drinking water and no longer eat home-grown fruit and vegetables. The residents also claim they have felt intimidated by one of Australia's leading strawberry marketing and distribution companies for raising their concerns about water and air pollution.

"There are plenty of residents, including smaller strawberry growers around here, who are intimidated by these people and are too scared to talk about it," said local resident... "There has been a lot of intimidation going on around here, perceived and actual." Mr ... is leading a campaign to change the farming practices of Oz Fresh Pty Ltd and a Perth-based managed investment scheme, Rewards Group.

Mr ...' property sits alongside the Rewards Group land and is across the creek from Oz Fresh. Tensions increased last week when a confrontation between Mr ... and his neighbour, Rocco Pignataro, led to complaints to police. "They have been spraying two to three times a week for eight months using turbo sprays that can send the pesticide drifts up to 10 kilometres away, and this is part of the Melbourne water catchment," Mr ... said.

The owners of Oz Fresh the leading strawberry supplier to Coles and Safeway supermarkets dispute the residents' claims, citing national food safety awards, regular auditing of farming methods and compliance with laws governing water use in Melbourne's catchment area. But the Labor MP for Gembrook and a member of the Environment and Natural Resources Committee, Tammy Lobato, has asked Melbourne Water to conduct tests in Woori Yallock Creek and the EPA to test drinking water tanks for pesticide contamination. Woori Yallock Creek rises from springs near ...east of Melbourne and is an important tributary for the Yarra River and the Melbourne water catchment. Rights to pump from the creek or collect surface run-off in the catchment require a licence from Melbourne Water.

The long-established Oz Fresh farm, recently expanded to cover 97 hectares, has entitlements to pump from the creek and store water for irrigation. But the Rewards Group, which started to acquire properties in the valley 10 months ago and has contracts and lease arrangements with Oz Fresh, has not been granted a water licence. Despite this, Rewards' strawberry and blueberry farm is being promoted to investors as having access to millions of litres of Melbourne's drinking water from "river diversion licences" and a 200-megalitre storage dam to be constructed within six months. "What they say on their website is one thing; we do not have an application (for the dam)," said Melbourne Water spokesman Ben Pratt. "Oz Fresh have a 138-megalitre entitlement that is surface and water allocations (creek pumping), but bans on pumping are current."

Mr Pratt said Melbourne Water had been working with Oz Fresh and Rewards Group to develop a farm management plan that would include revegetating the banks and public reserves along their shared creek frontage. He said no new water rights would be approved until Melbourne Water was satisfied the environmental and water management plan had been fulfilled. "We are closely monitoring the activity of Oz Fresh to ensure they comply," Mr Pratt said.

But Joe Pignataro, a director of the private, family-run company, said the Woori Yallock property had award-winning farm practices. He denied any suggestion the neighbours were intimidated by his family and said "my door is always open". "I have no idea why they would be saying these things," Mr Pignataro said. He also denied pesticides were sprayed on his property with booms raised, a practice known to contribute to spray drift. "There is no issue with pesticides," he said.

Tax office to probe strawberry farm Carmel Egan (Sunday Age) March 2, 2008

TAX officials will investigate complaints that one of Australia's leading strawberry producers misled investors about its right to draw water for irrigation from Melbourne's river catchments. The Australian Taxation Office is following up complaints that the Rewards Group, a Perth-based managed investment scheme, promoted its Yarra Valley strawberry and blueberry venture as having river diversion rights to Woori Yallock Creek, bore licences, and approval to collect and store run-off in dams. But The Sunday Age last week revealed that Melbourne Water, which controls irrigation licences in the Yarra and Woori Yallock valleys, has not granted the Rewards Group any water rights. While refusing to comment on the specifics of the Woori Yallock case, a spokeswoman said the Tax Office would follow up any concerns that organisations were operating "in a way materially different to that described in the product ruling". This story was found at: http://www.theage.com.au/articles/2008/03/01/1204227055227.html

 

July 2007: Strawberry farms (OZfresh) in close proximity to Woori Yallock Creek.

July 2007: Strawberry farms in close proximity to Woori Yallock Creek.

February 2008: Pollution entering Woori Yallock Creek (Melbourne's drinking water) from drainage line leaving Rewards Ozfresh site.

Aerial view of Ozfresh land holdings in Woori Yallock Creek catchment.

Approximate map showing intensive strawberry properties - Woori Yallock Creek circa 2007.

February 2008: Woori Yallock Creek catchment. New blueberry farm. Note contour ploughing which means most rainfall is caputred on site, leading to decreases in stream flow.

February 2008: Extensive new blueberry plantations for Rewards Group Managed Investment Scheme

February 2008: New farm dam, for Rewards Group/Ozfresh. Growers are also looking at gaining a 400ML licence to pump groundwater.

February 2008: Native vegetation removal for strawberry plantation near Woori Yallock Creek on Ozfresh land.

Some of the pesticides registered for use in strawberries in Victoria (see table below)

(Tolylfluanid (carcinogen), Thyran, Primcarb & Spinosad also used).

Information on pesticides sourced from Pesticide Action Network

Type
PAN BAD ACTOR
ACUTE TOXICITY
CARCINOGEN
CHOLINESTERASE INHIBITOR
GROUND WATER CONTAMINANT
DEVELOPMENTAL OR REPRODUCTIVE TOXIN
ENDOCRINE DISRUPTOR
Abamectin
Botanical
I
Yes
Yes
Not Likely
No
?
Yes
?
Biferazate
Unclassified
I
Not Listed
Slight
Not Likely
No
?
?
?
Bitertanol
Azole
F
Not Listed
Not Acutely Toxic
?
No
?
?
?
Boscalid
Anilide
F
Not Listed
?
Possible
No
?
?
?
Captan
Thiophthalimide
F
Yes
Yes
Yes
No
?
?
?
Carbaryl
N-Methyl Carbamate
I
Yes
Mod
Yes
Yes
Potential
?
Suspected
Chlorpyrifos
Organophosphorus
I
Yes
Mod
Not Likely
Yes
?
?
Suspected
Dichlofluanid
F
Not Listed
Not Acutely Toxic
?
No
?
?
?
Dicofol
Organochlorine
I
Yes
Yes
Possible
No
?
?
Suspected
Dimethoate
Organophosphorus
I
Yes
Yes
Possible
Yes
Potential
Yes
?
Dithiocarbamates
Dithiocarbamate
F
Not Listed
Slight
Unclassifiable
No
?
?
?
Endosulphan
Organochlorine
I
Yes
Yes
Not Likely
No
?
?
Suspected
Fenvalerate
Pyrethroid
I
Not Listed
Moderate
Unclassifiable
No
?
?
Suspected
Indoxacarb
Unclassified
I
Not Listed
Moderate
Not Likely
No
?
?
?
Iprodione
Dicarboximide
F
Yes
Slight
Yes
No
Potential
?
Suspected
Lindane
Organochlorine
I/R
Yes
Yes
Yes
No
?
?
Suspected
Maldison
Organophosphorus
I
Yes
Moderate
Possible
Yes
Potential
?
Suspected
Methidathion
Organophosphorus
I
Yes
Yes
Possible
Yes
Potential
?
?
Methomyl
N-Methyl Carbamate
I
Yes
Yes
Not Likely
Yes
Potential
?
Suspected
Methyl Bromide
Halogenated Organic
F/I/H/N
Yes
Yes
Unclassifiable
No
?
Yes
?
Myclobutanil
Azole
F
Yes
Slight
Not Likely
No
?
Yes
?
Napropamide
Amide
H
Not Listed
Slight
?
No
Potential
?
?
Pyrimethanil
Pyrimidine
F
Not Listed
Not Acutely Toxic
Possible
No
?
?
Suspected
Sethoxydim
Cyclohexenone Derivative
H
Not Listed
Slight
Not Likely
No
Potential
?
?
Trifloxystrobin
Strobin
F
Not Listed
Slight
Not Likely
No
?
?
?

Thiodicarb

Methyl-Carbamate
M/I
Yes
Moderate
Yes
Yes
?
?
?

View looking west towards Cockatoo over the headwaters of Melbourne's water supply catchment. Note intensive agriculture (spuds) in the Shepherd Creek/Cockatoo Creek catchment. For more information on the pesticides used in potato growing see here.

Closer view of agricultural land use north of Gembrook in Melbourne's water supply. Gembrook lies about 30km south of the Yarra River. What amount of pesticides are used in this region. What happens to these pesticides when it rains? In the past Dieldrin was used on spuds in this region.

July 2007: Woori Yallock Creek, 1.5km north west of Woori Yallock

July 2007: Beef cattle having a drink and a crap? in Woori Yallock Creek

July 2007: Riparian clearing on private land at Woori Yallock Creek about 2.5km north west of Woori Yallock. A couple of hectares of Acacia species have been removed at this location.

July 2007: Numerous stockpiles of native vegetation were observed at this location.

Image showing where clearing of native vegetation (yellow dots) has been occurring on Woori Yallock Creek. The land in question is controlled by Killara Park Pty Ltd, however according to the local council, the clearing appears to have been done with funds allocated by Melbourne Water's Stream Frontage Program. This however has been denied by Melbourne Water. According to parish plan maps of the Parish of Gruyere, a 20 metre crown reserve is supposed to occur along both sides of Woori Yallock Creek, however if land was sold off prior to 1881 the reserve doesn't apply. This location is crucial because it is the location where the Wandin Yallock Creek flows into the Woori Yallock.

July 2007: Intensive horticulture McCrae's Creek catchment, a tributary of Woori Yallock Creek.

July 2007: Orchards dominate water use in the Woori Yallock catchment

July 2007: Woori Yallock Creek Yellingbo.

 

July 2007: Yarra River floodplain near Woori Yallock.

July 2007: Unprotected tributary of Wandin Yallock Creek.

July 2007: Unprotected tributary of Wandin Yallock Creek.

Massive farm dams supplying new vineyards have occurred recently in the Woori Yallock catchment.

New vineyards west of Healesville in near the Yarra River. Not only do vineyards use vast amounts of toxic timber as posts, they also can use toxic herbicides such as Simazine, which at levels of 0.1 parts per billion can mess up human hormones converting testesterone into estrogen. Then there's the issue of water use and farm dams which can deny environmental flows.

Same image as above showing amount of farm dams (many of which were built when the vineyards went in).

More new vineyards and farm dams near Coldstream in the Yarra catchment.